top of page


The project Re_Formed is composed of four original hand-carved sandstone objects, digital 3D models generated by scanning the sandstone objects, and files for 3D printing replicas/variants of the original objects. This work relies on viewers' interaction with the digital format to produce the associated “re-formed” digital variants. The Re_Formed project encompasses all of the components of the work shown here, (the original carvings, the virtual models, and printing files) and links to all iterations of the re-printed files - the originals re_formed. 


As you hover your cursor over the 3D models to the left, the arrow point will change to a hand icon. To rotate the 3D model onscreen, click and drag. These models were generated by digitally scanning the original sandstone carvings. Due to the file size of these models, they may take a minute to load on your screen; if you are viewing this site on a smartphone, scroll down to the "AR Object" links to view the 3D models.

The models can be explored in further detail by downloading the files from Sketchfab or Thingaverse and opening them on your device with any 3D modeling program. In either Sketchfab or Thingaverse, search for "Re_Formed" to bring up the project.


Open source software that is ideal for viewing/manipulating/modifying these files to create radically different re_formed digital variants: Meshlab, Meshmixer, Blender, and ZBrushCoreMini. Versions available for both OSX and Windows operating systems. 

The same Re_Formed project files from Sketchfab or Thingaverse, can be used to 3D print. The 3D files are a 1:1 scale with the original objects. If no modifications to the project files are made, and they are printed as-downloaded, the resulting 3D printed object will be an exact dimensional replica of the original sandstone object. 


Videos of an example print in-process can be viewed on Vimeo. The example video used Cura for a slicing software, and is printed using black PLA filament on a Creality CR-10S.

The AR (Augmented Reality) links below can be used to interact with the Re_Formed objects as digital overlays onto a live-view of your physical surroundings using a smartphone. Each link will open a browser window that will load a model of the object. To view the object in AR, click on the rectangle with AR in the upper right corner of the screen. The AR objects can be re-positioned, rotated and scaled, by moving your finger across the smartphone screen once the AR object model loads. The AR object will initially load at 100% scale - this is a visualization of the exact size the original sandstone object would be relative to the physical objects seen through your smartphone's camera.  (iOS 13+, iPadOS 13+ or Android with ARCore 1.9+ required)


AR Object 1

AR Object 2

AR Object 3

AR Object 4


Re_Formed Project Background


On March 20, 2020, I was in Jaipur, Rajasthan, working on material and tool research for a Fulbright grant, when I received a call from the Delhi consulate requesting that I travel to New Delhi immediately. India had announced its borders’ imminent closing on March 22, and all foreigners on research visas were asked to depart. Within 10 hours of the phone call I was sitting in the Delhi airport, with bags packed and two small pieces of Rajasthani sandstone safely stored amongst my belongings. For me this material carried with it the heat, joy, and dust of the desert. I landed in San Jose, California, to quarantine with family, arriving to deserted highways and overcast chilly mornings.

Quiet, distant, un-touchable. 

The immediate familiar was abundantly available, but access to anything external to the established “shelter-in-place” location was accessible only via digital platforms. The screen was both access to, and barrier from, information on the external world. 

Opportunity, limitation, access.

The desire to touch, hold, and connect, led to the physical and digital design of Re_Formed, objects carved to be held in the hand, experienced across formats.  

Each Re_Formed object was designed to be hand-held. The sandstone originals were hand-carved, resulting in the slight irregularities in the geometry seen in the digital scans. The sandstone lends a significant weight to the objects for their size - average weight of the sandstone objects being 11.6 oz compared to the average weight of the 3D print which is 1.5 oz.  


Given the distinct strata layers of the sandstone, each object was carved out of a stone block in an orientation that would highlight these lines around each object's subtle curves. 


Sandstone Objects: Dimensions as X by Y by Z in mm. Weight in oz. 


Object I. Sandstone. 67 x 89 x 101 mm. 11.4 oz.

Object 2. Sandstone. 70 x 80 x 70 mm. 8.8 oz.

Object 3. Sandstone. 72 x 70 x 79 mm.12.8 oz.

Object 4. Sandstone. 70 x 102 x 64 mm. 13.4 oz.

bottom of page